Fractal Image
Encoding
This site contains links to a variety of information and resources
on Fractal Image Encoding and related topics.
This site is updated often, so check out
what's new or
come again...
Table of Contents
The material in the following sections is not complete  if something
is not here, it may still be out there somewhere. The order of information
is haphazard, things at the bottom may be "better" than things at the top.
Bibliographies and Other References

biblio.ps.gz is a bibliography focused on fractal image compression
particularly. There is also a
guide with a brief description of each paper.
 A
BibTeX bibliography is available from Brendt Wohlberg,
University of Cape Town.
 A
nice bibliography (postscript) compiled by John Kominek, from
the Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, is available
by ftp. It contains many papers, focused around fractals in imaging.
 The
bibliography from "Fractal Image Compression: Theory
and Application to Digital Images" is available in TeX (good), not
BiBTeX (bad); it contains more references than the book's real bibliography
(good), but there are also nonfractalimagecompression references (bad).
 Here are several patents:
these links are not too stable, unfortunately.
More patent information can be found at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

(4,941,193)
Methods and apparatus for image compression by iterated function system
(Barnsley; Michael F. (Atlanta, GA); Sloan; Alan D. (Atlanta, GA)), Jul. 10,
1990.

(5,065,447) Method and apparatus for processing digital data.
(Barnsley;
Michael F. (Atlanta, GA); Sloan; Alan D. (Atlanta, GA)), Nov. 12, 1991.

(5,384,867) Fractal transform compression board (Barnsley;
Michael F. (Atlanta, GA); Sloan; Alan D. (Atlanta, GA); Elton; John H.
(Atlanta,
GA); Moreman; Charles S. (Lawrenceville, GA); Primiano; Guy A.
(Cumming, GA)), Jan. 24, 1995.

(5,416,856)Method of encoding a digital image using iterated image
transformations to form an eventually
contractive map (Jacobs; Everett W. (San Diego, CA); Boss; Roger D. (San
Diego, CA); Fisher; Yuval (La Jolla, CA), May 16, 1995.

(5,430,812) Fractal transform compression board (Barnsley; Michael
F. (Atlanta, GA); Sloan; Alan D. (Atlanta, GA); Elton; John H. (Atlanta,
GA); Moreman; Charles S. (Lawrenceville, GA); Primiano; Guy A.
(Cumming, GA)), Jul. 4, 1995.
Books
 Fractal Image Compression: Theory and Application to
Digital Images, Yuval Fisher (Ed.), Springer Verlag, New York, 1995
is a collection of articles on Fractal Image Encoding.
About this book:
 An elementary introduction containing almost no mathematics.
 Rigorous description of all the relevant mathematics of the subject.
 Recent theoretical results on fast encoding and decoding methods,
various schemes for encoding images using fractal concepts, and
theoretical models for the encoding/decoding process.
 C Code:
Ordering information.
 Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis: A NATO ASI Series
Book, Yuval Fisher (Ed.), Springer Verlag, New York, 1996
contains the proceedings of the Fractal Image Encoding
and Analysis Advanced Study Institute held in Trondheim, Norway
July 817, 1995. This book contains articles by leading researchers in the
fields of fractal image encoding and analysis. The book is currently
being procuced.
Conferences and Announcements
Many of these are over, but their web pages still contain useful (or
possibly interesting) information.
 Fractals in
Engineering will be held in Arcachon, FRANCE, June 2527, 1997.
The goal of the conference is to bring together researchers working in all
area of fractal analysis. The scope
encompasses recent theoretical advances as well as industrial applications.
 Fractals in the Natural and
Applied Sciences will be held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 811 April 1997.
The conference is intended to provide a forum for the dissemination of the
latest research findings in the broad
field of fractals. Interdisciplinary submissions are strongly encouraged.

International Conference on "Future of Fractals"
25th27th July 1995, Aichi Prefecture Laborer Center, Seto, Aichi, Japan.
 Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis,
an NATO Advanced Study Institute, was held in Trondheim, Norway July 817,
1995. It was a lot of fun, some of which you can see that the conference's.
web site.
Internet Resources
Papers
 For a good introduction to fractal image compression, view the
SIGGRAPH '92 Course notes on fractal image compression (977K).
The
SIGGRAPH '92 Course notes without the figures are
also available (80K). This paper is also available
in French, translated by M. Latapy.
 A postscript version of a paper on
A comparison of
Fractals with JPEG and Wavelets . This paper (or a version of it)
appeared in the 94 San Diego SPIE conference proceedings. This
paper is a subset of the data contained in the "comparison of results"
section in Fractal Image Compression, discussed above.
 Fractal Video
Compression material, including a paper, encoded sequences and a decoder.
 View a
postscript preprint
by F. Dudbridge describing a new technique for fast fractal image coding.
If you have any questions please send
email to frankd@inls1.ucsd.edu.
 Here is an important paper about the relationship between fractal image
encoding, wavelet encoding, mixing the two, and related stuff. It is
available from Geoff Davis'
home page.
 Get a paper about fractal Image compression, it's connection to
the Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform and a fractal coder in the wavelet domain:
H. Krupnik, D. Malah and E. Karnin,
"Fractal Representation of Images via the Discrete Wavelet Transform"
IEEE 18th Conv. of EE in Israel, TelAviv, March 1995.
There are several other papers at that site also.
 Papers describing parallel implementation of
quadtree code are available from
Dr. Jeff Jackson's (the author) home page.
 The Bath group has a list of
online papers
on the Bath Fractal Transform.
 Combining Tree and Feature
Classification in Fractal Encoding of Images by Behnam BaniEqbal,
discusses a tree structured classification that speeds encoding times by
up to 75%. Code is available at the cite as well.
 An
ftp site at ftp.informatik.unifreiburg.de is maintained by
Dietmar Saupe and Raouf Hamzaoui. Here is what is there:
(last updated July 12, 1996)
 Guide.ps.gz

A guided tour of the fractal image compression literature,
D. Saupe, R. Hamzaoui, Technical Report 58, Institut f"ur Informatik,
July 94. The figures for this paper are in separate files:
Saup94a.fig1.ps.gz
Saup94a.fig2.ps.gz
A first version is contained in the SIGGRAPH'94 course notes.
 AlCl91.ps.gz

Fractal image compression,
M. Ali, T. G. Clarkson, Proc. 1st Seminar on Information Technology
and its Applications (ITA'91), Markfield Conf. Centre, Leicester, U.K.,
29 Sept., 1991.
 AlCl92.ps.gz

Survey of Block Based Fractal Image Compression and Its Applications,
M. Ali, T. G. Clarkson, Proc. 2nd Seminar on Information Technology
and its Applications (ITA'91), Markfield Conf. Centre, Leicester, U.K.,
Dec. 1993.
 AlCl94.ps.gz

Using linear fractal interpolation functions to compress video images,
M. Ali, T. G. Clarkson, Fractals 2,3 (1994) 417421.
 AlGeCl93.ps.gz

Analysis, generation and compression of pavement distress images using
fractals,
M. Ali, M. A. Gennert, T. G. Clarkson, in The Applications of Fractals
and Chaos, eds. A.J. Crilly, R.A. Earnshaw and H. Jones, SpringerVerlag,
Berlin, 1993, p.147169.
Figures are in AlGeCl93.fig2.ps.gz and AlGeCl93.fig12.ps.gz.
 AlPaCl92.ps.gz

The use of fractal theory in a video compression system,
M. Ali, C. Papadopoulos, T. G. Clarkson, in Proc. IEEE Data
Compression Conference (DCC'92), 2427 March, 1992.
 BSVN94.ps.gz

A new image coding technique unifying fractal and transform coding
K. U. Barthel, J. Sch{\"u}ttemeyer, Th. Voy{\'e}, P. Noll,
IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP'94), Austin, Texas.
 BaMaKa93.ps.gz

Hierarchical interpretation of fractal image coding and its applications
to fast decoding, Z. Baharav, D. Malah, E. Karnin, Intl. Conf. on
Digital Signal Processing, Cyprus, 1993.
 Bani94.ps.gz

Speeding up fractal image compression,
B. BaniEqbal, Proceedings from IS\&T/SPIE 1995 Symposium on Electronic
Imaging: Science \& Technology Vol.\ 2418: StillImage Compression, 1995.
 Bart95.ps.gz

Entropy constrained fractal image coding,
K. U. Barthel, NATO ASI on Fractal Image Coding, Trondheim, Norway,
July 1995
 BaVo94.ps.gz

Adaptive fractal image coding in the frequency domain,
K. U. Barthel, T. Voye, Proceedings of International Workshop on
Image Processing, Budapest, June 1994.
 BaVo95.ps.gz

ThreeDimensional fractal video coding,
K. U. Barthel, T. Voye, IEEE Int. Conf. on Image
Processing (ICIP'95), Washington, D.C., USA
 BaVoNo93.ps.gz

Improved fractal image coding,
K. U. Barthel, T. Voye, P. Noll, Proceedings from Picture Coding Symposium,
March 1993.
 BoMe92.ps.gz

Kohonen neural network for image coding based on iteration transformation
theory,
A. Bogdan, H. E., Meadows, Proceedings from SPIE Neural and Stochastic
Methods in Image and Signal Processing, Vol.\ 1766, pp.\ 425436, 1992.
 Bogd94a.ps.gz

Multiscale (inter/intraframe) fractal video coding,
A. Bogdan, Proc. ICIP94 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing,
Austin, Texas, Nov.\ 1994.
 CaMo94.ps.gz

Generalized selfsimilarity, wavelets and image analysis
C. Cabrelli, U. Molter, Preprint #78, Dept. of Math., University of Buenos
Aires, 1994.
 ChDaBe93.ps.gz

Compression fractale par partitionnement de Delaunay,
J.M. Chassery, F. Davoine, E. Bertin, 14th Conference GRETSI,
JuanlesPins, Sept. 1993.
 ChZh95.ps.gz

Multiresolution approximation of fractal transform
B. Cheng, X. Zhu, to appear in Signal Processing.
 Cisc96.ps.gz

On entropy coding Fisher's fractal quadtree code,
G. Ciscar, June 1996.
 DaBeCh93.ps.gz

From rigidity to adaptive tessellation for fractal image compression:
Comparative studies,
F. Davoine, E. Bertin, J.M. Chassery, IEEE 8th Workshop on Image and
Multidimensional Signal Processing, Cannes, Sept. 1993.
 DaCh94.ps.gz

Adaptive Delaunay triangulation for attractor image coding,
F. Davoine, J.M. Chassery, 12th International Conference on Pattern
Recognition, Jerusalem, Oct. 1994.
 DaSvCh95.ps.gz

A mixed triangular and quadrilateral partition for fractal image coding,
F. Davoine, J. Svensson, J.M Chassery, IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing
(ICIP'95).
 FGHS94.ps.gz

Image compression based on fractal theory,
C. Frigaard, J. Gade, T. Hemmingsen, T. Sand, Institute for Electronic
Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark, 1994.
 FoVr94a.ps.gz

Solving the inverse problem for function/image approximations using
iterated function systems, I. Theoretical basis,
B. Forte, E. R. Vrscay, Fractals 2,3 (1994) 325334.
 FoVr94b.ps.gz

Solving the inverse problem for function/image approximations using
iterated function systems, II. Algorithm and computations,
B. Forte, E. R. Vrscay, Fractals 2,3 (1994) 335346.
 FoVr95a.ps.gz

Solving the inverse problem for function and image approximation using iterated
function systems,
B. Forte, E. R. Vrscay, to appear in Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive
Systems 1,2 (1995). Figures are in FoVr95a.figs.ps.gz.
 FoVr95b.ps.gz

Theory of generalized fractal transforms,
B. Forte, E. R. Vrscay, to appear in the Proceedings of the NATO ASI on
Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis, July 1995, Trondheim.
 GoIbGr95.ps.gz

Fractal image coding and magnification using invariant features,
D, G\"{o}tting, A., Ibenthal, R.R., Grigat, NATO ASI Conf. Fractal Image
Encoding and Analysis, Trondheim, July 1995, to appear in a special issue of Fractals.
 Hamz95.ps.gz

Codebook clustering by selforganizing maps for fractal image compression,
R. Hamzaoui, NATO ASI Conf. Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis, Trondheim,
July 1995, to appear in a special issue of Fractals.
 Hamz96a.ps.gz

A new decoding algorithm for fractal image compression,
R. Hamzaoui, to appear in Electronics Letters.
 HaMuSa96a.ps.gz

VQenhanced fractal image compression,
R. Hamzaoui, M. M\"uller, D. Saupe, ICIP96 IEEE
International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Sept. 1996.
 HaMuSa96b.ps.gz

Enhancing fractal image compression with vector quantization,
R. Hamzaoui, M. M\"uller, D. Saupe, 1996 IEEE Digital Signal
Processing Workshop, Loen, Sept. 1996.
 Huer93.ps.gz

Contractivity of fractal transforms for image coding,
B. Huertgen, Electronics Letters, 29 (1993) 17491750.
 Huer95a.ps.gz

Performance bounds for fractal coding,
B. Huertgen, Proceedings of ICASSP1995 IEEE International Conference on
Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol.\ 4, Detroit, 1995.
 Huer95b.ps.gz

Statistical evaluation of fractal coding schemes,
B. Huertgen, ICIP'95, Vol. 3 pp. 280283, Washington, DC, USA, 1995.
 HuBu93.ps.gz

Fractal approach to lowrate video coding,
B. Huertgen, P. Buettgen, Proceedings from SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing,
Vol.\ 2094, pp.\ 120131, 1993.
 HuHa94.ps.gz

On the convergence of fractal transforms,
B. Huertgen, T. Hain, Proceedings of ICASSP1994 IEEE International Conference on
Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 5, pp. 561564, Adelaide, 1994.
 HuMu94.ps.gz

Modelling of fractal coding schemes,
B. Huertgen, F. Mueller, Proceedings of the VIIth European Signal Processing Conference
EUSIPCO'94 Vol. 1 Edinburgh, Scotland pp. 600603, 1994.
 HM94.ps.gz

Selbstahnlichkeit als neuartiges Prinzip zur Quellencodierung,
B. Huertgen, F. Mueller, Proceedings ITGFachtagung 130, Codierung
fur Quelle, Kanal und Ubertragung, pp. 277284, Muenchen, 1994.
 HuMuSt93.ps.gz

Adaptive fractal coding of still pictures,
B. Huertgen, F. Mueller, C. Stiller, Proceedings of the International Picture Coding Symposium PCS'93
Lausanne, Switzerland, 1993.
 HuMoSi94.ps.gz

Fractal transform coding of color images,
B. Huertgen, P. Mols, S. F. Simon, Proceedings of the International Conference
on Visual Communications and Image Processing, SPIE '94, Vol. 2308,
pp. 16831691, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1994.
 HuSi94.ps.gz

On the problem of convergence in fractal coding schemes,
B. Huertgen, S. F. Simon, ICIP'94, Austin, Texas, 1994.
 HuSt93.ps.gz

Fast hierarchical codebook search for fractal coding of still images,
B. Huertgen and C. Stiller, Proceedings EOS/SPIE Visual Communications and PACS
for Medical Applications '93 Vol. 1977 Berlin, Germany pp. 397408, 1993.
 KiKiLe95.ps.gz

Novel fractal image compression method with noniterative decoder,
C.S., Kim, R.C., Kim, S.U, Lee, Proc. ICIP95 IEEE International
Conference on Image Processing, Washington, D.C., 1995.
 KiLe95.ps.gz

Fractal coding of video sequence by circular prediction mapping,
C.S., Kim, S.U, Lee, NATO ASI Conf. Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis,
Trondheim, July 1995, to appear in a special issue of Fractals.
 Komi95a.ps.gz

Algorithm for fast fractal image compression,
J. Kominek, Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 2419, 1995.
 Komi95b.ps.gz

Convergence of fractal encoded images,
J. Kominek, Proceedings DCC'95 Data Compression Conference,
J. A. Storer, M. Cohn (eds.), IEEE Computer Society Press, March 1995.
 KrMaKa96.ps.gz

Fractal representation of images via the discrete wavelet transform,
H. Krupnik, D. Malah, E. Karnin, IEEE 18th
Conf. of Electrical Engineering, TelAviv, March 1995.
 Nova93a.ps.tar.gz

Attractor coding of images,
M. Novak, Licentiate Dissertation, Linkoping University, May 1993.
 Nova93b.ps.gz

Attractor coding of images,
M. Novak, Picture Coding Symposium, Lausanne 93.
 OBLMK94.ps.gz

A new improved collage theorem with applications to multiresolution
fractal image coding,
G. E. Oien, Z. Baharav, S. Lepsoy, D. Malah, E. Karnin, Proc. ICASSP, 1994.
 Reus93.ps.gz

Sequence coding based on the fractal theory of iterated transformations
systems,
E. Reusens, Proc. of VCIP, Boston 1993.
 Reus94a.ps.gz

Overlapped adaptive partitioning for image coding based on the
theory of iterated function systems
E. Reusens, Proc. of ICASSP 1994, Adelaide.
 Reus94b.ps.gz

Partitioning complexity issue for iterated functions systems based
image coding,
E. Reusens, Proc. of VII EUSIPCO, Edinburgh, September 1994.
 RiCa94.ps.gz

An image coding scheme using block prediction of the pyramid subband
decomposition,
R. Rinaldo, G. Calvagno, Proc. ICIP 1994, Austin, Texas.
 RiCa95.ps.gz

Image Coding by Block Prediction of Multiresolution Subimages,
R. Rinaldo, G. Calvagno, IEEE Trans. on Image Proc., July 1995.
 Saup94a.ps.gz

Breaking the time complexity of fractal image compression,
D. Saupe, Technical Report 53, Institut f"ur Informatik, 1994
The figures for this paper are in separate files:
Saup94a.fig1.ps.gz
Saup94a.fig2.ps.gz
Saup94a.fig3.ps.gz
Note: The paper [Saup94c] entitled "From classification to
multidimensional keys" cited as [Saup94c] in "A guided tour ..."
is just an excerpt of this paper [Saup94a]. So you do not need a copy of it.
 Saup95a.ps.gz

Accelerating fractal image compression by multidimensional
nearest neighbor search,
D. Saupe, Proceedings DCC'95 Data Compression Conference,
J. A. Storer, M. Cohn (eds.), IEEE Computer Society Press, March 1995.
 Saup95b.ps.gz

Fractal image compression via nearest neighbor search,
D. Saupe, in: Conf. Proc. NATO ASI Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis,
Trondheim, July 1995, Y. Fisher (ed.), to appear in SpringerVerlag,
New York, 1995.
 Saup96a.ps.gz

Lean domain pools for fractal image compression,
D. Saupe, in: Proceedings from IS\&T/SPIE 1996 Symposium on Electronic
Imaging: Science \& Technology  Still Image Compression II,}
Vol.\ 2669, Jan.\ 1996.
 Saup96c.ps.gz

The futility of square isometries in fractal image compression,
D. Saupe, IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP'96), Lausanne,
Sept. 1996.
 SaHa95a.ps.gz

Complexity reduction methods for fractal image compression,
D. Saupe, R. Hamzaoui, in: IMA Conf. Proc. on
Image Processing; Mathematical Methods and Applications,
Sept. 94, J. M. Blackledge (ed.), to appear in 1996.
 SaHar96a.ps.gz

Lossless acceleration of fractal image compression
by fast convolution,
D. Saupe, H. Hartenstein, ICIP96 IEEE
International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Sept. 1996.
 SaRu96a.ps.gz

Evolutionary fractal image compression,
D. Saupe, M. Ruhl, ICIP96 IEEE
International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Sept. 1996.
 Sign95.ps.gz

Geometrical interpretation of IFS based image coding,
J. Signes, NATO ASI Conf. Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis, Trondheim,
July 1995, to appear in a special issue of Fractals.
 Simo95.ps.gz

Explicit link between local fractal transform and multiresolution
transform,
B. Simon, IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP'95).
 VeRu94.ps.gz

Fractal compression of single images and image sequences using
genetic algorithms,
L. Vences, I. Rudomin.
 Vine93.ps.gz

Signal Modeling with Iterated Function Systems,
G. Vines, PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1993.
 Wall95.ps.gz

Merging fractal image compression and wavelet transform methods,
A. van der Walle,
NATO ASI Conf. Fractal Image Encoding and Analysis, Trondheim,
July 1995, to appear in a special issue of Fractals.
 WoJa95.ps.gz

Fast image domain fractal compression by DCT domain block matching,
B. E. Wohlberg, G. de Jager, Electronic Letters 31 (1995) 869870.
 ZhPo95.ps.gz

Fractal color image compression using vector distortion measure,
Y. Zhang, L. M., Po, Proc. ICIP95 IEEE International Conference on Image
Processing, Washington, D.C., 1995.
 biblio.ps.gz

Updated bibliography, June 1996.
Software
 Fractal Video
Compression material, including a paper, encoded sequences and a decoder.

Peruse older executable code and sample encoded images. This includes
PC executables, but unfortunately the encoded images are not compatible
with the slightly newer version available below. This material is
also available by ftp from
kurosawa.unice.fr:/pub/compression/fractals.

Newer executable code and sample encoded images. Executables for SUN, SGI,
and NeXT are included. This same material is also available by ftp
from
kurosawa.unice.fr:/pub/compression/fractalsnew.
 Many interesting things related to chaos and fractals
are available from Matt Kennel's
ftp archive now at inls.ucsd.edu.
 FracCompress, written by Jude
Sylvestre (sylvestre@hws3.hws.edu), is a Win32 application based on
Visual C++ class named CFracComp. This class is based on Yuval Fisher's
encoder and decoder C code. The
class was written as part of Honors Thesis in computer science at
Hobart and Williams Colleges.
It has been tested on Windows NT 3.5, Windows 95 Prerelease and Windows
3.1 with win32s extensions. This class can be consider as an Alpha
version, much of the code is being improved and modified in order to
provide support for multiple graphic format, and increasing speed. The
class library is able to save images in RAW format(Rowcol major
ordering). Image can also be saved tthe clipboard; input file must also
be in RAW image format. The class library is provided ASIS and as Freeware.
A very useful program to uses with this application is Paint Pro v3.0.
It is able to read and write RAW image file. It can be founded at
ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/simtelnet/win3/graphics/psp311.zip
 Giovambattista Pulcini and Valerio Verrando from
"La Sapienza", Rome, Italy, have written
a program to encode 24bpp color images.
The program is partially based on Yuval Fisher's
enc.c/dec.c, but uses a simpler classification scheme.
Their site
has more information about their Window's 95 code.
 Several students at the Institute for Electronic Systems at Aalborg
University, Denmark have written a quadtree based code called Limbo.
You can read about it
or just
go there. This code is newly (Jan 27, 1995) improved.
 Scott Hollatz, when he was at the Department of Mathematics and
Statistics, University of MinnesotaDuluth, put together a package,
including an undergraduate level technical report and working code. The
report is called "Digital image compression with
twodimensional affine fractal interpolation functions," which
sums up the approach (to be brief: encoding is done on scanlines, with
an iterative ``chaos game'' decoding). The code outputs ASCII so there is
work to do to get compression out of it.
You can get it
(753090 bytes) or ftp to hp.uwsuper.edu. A hard copy can be received
by mail by contacting the mathematics department.
 Andreas Kassler (
kassler@informatik.uniulm.de) wrote a
windows based program
based on Yuval Fisher's enc/dec code for his Diplomarbeit.
The program features:
 full truecolor compression in rgb or yuvmodell
 new fileformat so there's no need for commandline parameters
 iterative decoding or pyramidedecoder
 postprocessing with Fisher's heuristic schema or with Ramstad/Lepsoy
scheme.
 there are a few imageprocessing tools implemented like filtering,
edgedetection ...
 program can read and write fileformats like WindowsBMP, TIFF, PCX, GIF,
EPS, JPEG, WMF
 A DOS binary for the
Bath Fractal Transform is now available.
 Iterated Systems has released a
fractal image (for their own format and with a 6K license agreement)
decoder for
Windows and Macs.
Another page contains some
image sources.
 Code demonstrating the
Combining of Tree and Feature Classification in Fractal Encoding of Images
by Behnam BaniEqbal, demonstrates a tree structured classification
that speeds encoding times by up to 75%. A companion paper is available at
the cite as well.
About Reprints, Students, INLS, and me.
I get a a steady trickle of email based on the misconception that
I can accept students or influence the acceptance of postdocs
at the University of California,
San Diego, or possibly at the institute for nonlinear science (INLS). This is
not so. I have a visiting position, and this means that I
cannot influence the applications of students, accept students myself, or
invite visitors. It also means that I don't have the resources to photocopy and
mail reprints (not to mention the inclination). (If you have bags of money
to hand out, consider this a shameless plea).
I am at INLS due to the gracious hospitality of Henry Abarbanel, the
director of the institute. INLS is home to physicists, mostly, who work on
spaciotemporal chaos.
To pass the time, I recently wrote a book:

Yuval Fisher (yfisher@ucsd.edu)
Institute for Nonlinear Science
University for California, San Diego
July 20, 1995.
This site is updated often, so check out
what's new or
come again...
If you would like to leave your papers here, ftp them to
inls.ucsd.edu:pub/uploads/ and email me with the file name and a
blurb that you want to with the link to the paper.
If you have questions about fractal image compression/encoding
or if you would like to announce code and/or results,
feel free to do so at the Fractal Image Encoding
Announcements and Questions page. If you have comments about
these pages or personal nonfractal questions, please feel free to
mail them to me.
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