CS 3604 Professionalism in Computer Science
PART I: Multiple Choice. Questions may have more than one correct answer. Circle the most correct answer. Each question is worth 3 points
1. The first use of punched cards in directing the actions of machines dates back to:
a. Herman Hollerith
b. John Napier
c. Charles Babbage
d. Joseph Jacquard
2. John Napier invented the logarithm, the promptuary, and the chessboard calculator.
3. It took 7.5 years to complete tabulation of the information gathered in the 1880 census. When Herman Hollerith handled the 1890 census,the amount of tabulation time decreased to:
a. 6 years
b. 2.5 years
c. 1 year
4. IBM originated from the following company:
a. Tabulating Machine Co.
b. Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co.
c. Sperry Corporation
5. John Atanasoff was visited by the following scientist to view his computer:
a. Alan Turing
b. John Mauchly
c. Clifford Berry
6. A language used during early attempts at office automation was:
d. Assembly language
7. Shoulder surfing is a simple technique used to determine:
a. passwords that are in encrypted form in a file
b. a user's password from reading keystrokes
c. the activities that a user engages in during a session
8. Viruses have the following two potential purposes:
a. replicate themselves and perpetrate "mischief" such as a bomb or worm
b. replicate and then erase themselves
c. perform an action and erase themselves
d. attach themselves to other programs and replicate themselves
9. The following are basic copyright rules:
a. protects original works of authorship against unauthorized copying and potential loss of sales
b. is applicable to literary and dramatic works, as well as computer programs and databases
c. is owned by the individual who originates the work
d. includes the rule of fair use
e. a and b
f. a, b, c and d
10. The duration for a copyright is:
a. life of author plus 50 years
b. from registration to 50 years
c. from registration to death of author
d. from creation to 50 years
11. Patents must be files within 9 months of initial public view.
12. Patent protection lasts for:
a. 12 years
b. 20 years
c. 17 years
d. 24 years
13. In Deborah Johnson's book, Computer Ethics, the term computer professional refers (in the broadest sense used in the book) to:
a. individuals who make a living working with computers
b. programmers and analysts
c. those who sell computer equipment
d. all of the above
14. The ACM's Code of Professional Conduct is much more than merely a description of obligations of computer professionals. Members of the ACM are legally bound the by the canons.
15. When considering the potential impact of the application of a computer to an existing activity, one should consider:
a. Whether automation will merely perform the same task.
b. Whether automation will perform the task more efficiently.
c. Whether automation will allow new additional tasks to be completed.
d. Whether automation will replace people.
e. Whether automation will be cost effective.
f. a, b, and c
g. a, c, and e
h. b, d, and f
i. All of the above
16. The use of disclaimers with respect to software:
a. may mean that a product is available sooner than later
b. is not a controversial topic, legally speaking
c. is controversial, legally
d. allows the buyer to take risks
e. a, b, and d
f. a, c, and d
17. Copyrights imply that:
a. one owns the expression of a solution idea
b. the owner has a monopoly on the program
c. the program may not be copied
18. Barbara Sherwin is:
a. Cliff Stoll's girlfriend
b. the secretary in Stoll's department at the lab
c. an FBI agent
d. none of the above
19. Computer programs are patentable when they are:
a. Part of a larger software system
b. Included in an embedded computer
c. Essential to the product in which they are included
d. Copyrighted first
20. The US Department of Defense created and named the modern programming language Ada for:
a. Poet Byron's daughter
b. The Countess of Lovelace
c. The first computer programmer
d. Charles Babbage's wife
e. a, b, and c
f. a, b, and d
PART II: Essay. Answer each question below in the space provided. Each question is worth 20 points.
21. The five canons of the ACM code of Professional Conduct are:
1. An ACM member shall act at all times with integrity.
2. An ACM member should strive to increase his competence, and the competence and prestige of the profession.
3. An ACM member shall accept responsibility for his work.
4. An ACM member shall act with professional responsibility.
5. An ACM member should use his special knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare.
From your reading of the Cuckoo's Egg by Cliff Stoll, and assuming that Stoll was a member of the ACM or a similar professional organization, give your opinion of the ways in which he adhered to, or violated, the canons of the above code in his search for the intruder into the Berkeley computer system.
Canon 1. He acted with integrity by sticking to the task to which he was assigned.
Canon 2. He certainly had to extend his own competence to understand the problem he was undertaking.
Canon 3. He took responsibility for his work by being willing to go to court to prosecute the intruder.
Canon 4. Difficult to judge.
Canon 5. He certainly protected "human welfare" by trapping a person who was attacking the "law and order" of international espionage.
22. A team of artificial intelligence scientists has invented an automatic speech-recognition device and voice-response system that can be used economically to serve customers of automated teller machines for most banking services. Great effort is made to convince customers that they are conversing with a real person. In fact. in case of system failure, a human substitutes for the voice response system and follows the same protocols and rules as the automated system. No capability is included to permit the customer to know whether the conversation is with the automated device or a human.
Respond to the following opinions regarding the potential ethical behavior on the part of the purveyors of this system:
(a) The inventors are marketing a device specifically designed to deceive the public and take no responsibility for the social implications of their product. This is unethical behavior.
Disagree. The inventors are designing a friendly man-machine interface which is more likely to be accepted by customers than a totally artificial system. The whole goal of AI is to imitate human systems to better serve the public. In many ways all computers imitate human action; imitation is not equivalent to deception.
The "Turing Test" distinctly sets the goal of building systems which imitate humans.
The social implication of making a computer simulate a human is non-negative.
Like Nobel, an inventor often has no control over the uses of his invention; if there is a problem here it is in the use of the system not its design - unless the user is purposely kept unaware of negative social implications.
(b) Any bank which uses this device is a party to deception and fraud. This is unethical behavior.
Disagree. So long as the bank provides a service which is beneficial to the customer, and is not socially threatening or disruptive, there is no unethical behavior.
Bonus Question: Worth 10 points.
23. What is wrong with the following statement?
John Napier made his two biggest contributions toward reducing wear and tear on mathematicians. In 1594 he invented logarithms, and in 1617 he improved [mathematical tables] by applying his logarithms to blocks of wood. By applying them to blocks of wood shaped like rulers, two rulers could be laid side by side and the answers read directly. These rods of wood, called "Napier's Bones" were improved rapidly.
Napier never linked his "bones" with logarithms. Slide rules were invented by Oughtred after Napier's death. Slide rules were never called "Napier's Bones". The "Bones" were not shaped like rulers. Napier announced his discovery of logarithms in 1614.