# Formulas

### Composition

• Formulas contain constants, cell references, variables, & functions.

• Composed as arithmetic expressions with common operators and evaluated by traditional programming hierarchy.

### Cell Referencing

• Cells in formulas can be referenced absolutely or relatively.

• Relative Referencing: Cells are referred to normally in formulas by their Column letter and Row number, e.g.,

B2 * C3 - D4 + F5

Relative references automatically adjust for the new location, so a copied or moved formula refers to different cells than in the original formula.

• Absolute Referencing: Column letter and/or Row Number cell references are preceded by a Dollar sign, e.g.,

\$B\$2 * C\$3 - \$D4 + F5

When you move or copy a formula with an absolute reference, the reference is to the exact cells as in the original formula.

• Mixed references, such as A\$1 or \$A1, will use relative referencing for rows or columns without the "\$" and absolute referencing for those with the "\$".

### Ranges

Ranges of cells can be specified as parameters to functions by separating the beginning and ending cells of the range with a colon, e.g., (B2:B5), (C3:G3).

### Cell Copying

• A column or row range of cells can be initialized by shift-selecting & choosing Edit - Fill (Down, Right, Left, Up). Contents of the first cell in the range (column or row) is copied to every other cell in the range.

• Formula Copying

The result of copying depends upon cell references within a formula.

Cell references within a formula are automatically adjusted by the number of rows or columns over which the formula is being copied. The difference of the number of rows and columns between the copied cell location and the destination cell location is added to the corresponding row or column references in the relative referenced cells in the formula.

Absolute cell references, (and partial absolute references), are copied verbatim without adjustment of the dollar sign, (absolute), preceded cell references.

### Functions

Excel contains a complete library of pre-defined functions which can be accessed through the Function Wizard:

### Macros

• Allows a series of repetitive tasks to be assigned a name and executed.
• Macro Sheets provide a programming facility.