This list of references was developed in conjunction with the article, "Using the new ACM code of ethics in decision making" (Commmunications of the ACM, February, 1993) by Ronald E. Anderson, Deborah G. Johnson, Donald Gotterbarn and Judith Perrolle. The article shows how to evaluate individual cases with the newly adopted ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. The references in this bibliography are grouped into nine topics corresponding to the nine case studies in the article. A list of general references on computer ethics follows at the end.


Bynum, T. W., Maner, W., and Fodor, J. eds., Software Ownership and Intellectual Property Rights, Research Center on Computing and Society, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, 1992.
Forester, T. "Software theft and the problem of intellectual property rights. Computers and Society 20,1 (March, 1990) 2-11.
National Research Council. Intellectual Propety Issues in Software. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC., 1991.


Bynum, T. W., Maner, W., and Fodor, J. eds., Computing and Privacy,, Research Center on Computing and Society, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, 1992.
Flaherty, D. Protecting privacy in surveillance societies. University of North Carolina Press, l989.
Freedman, W. The Right of Privacy in the Computer Age, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., l987.
IEEE Computer Society Press. Proceedings of the First conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991.
IEEE Computer Society Press. Proceedings of the Second conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1992.
Salpeter, J. "Are you obeying copyright law?" Technology and Learning. 12, 8 (1992) 12-23.


AMA (American Medical Association). 1989. Current Opinions. American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago IL 60610.
Ellenberg, Jonas H. Ethical guidelines for statistical practice: A historical perspective. The American Statistician. 37(1) 1-13, 1983.
Ezorsky, G. .Ed. Moral Rights in the Workplace, State University of New York Press, New York 1987.
Gerson, E. M. and Star, S. L. Analyzing due process in the workplace, ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, 4, (l986).
Guynes, C. S. Protecting statistical databases: A matter of privacy. Computers and Society 19,1 (March, 1989), 15-23.
Laudon, K. C. Dossier Society: Value Choices in the Design of National Information Systems, Columbia University Press, l986.


Gotterbarn, D. "Computer ethics: Responsibility regained." National Forum. (Summer 1991), 26-32.
Gotterbarn, D. "Ethics and the computing professional." Collegiate Microcomputer. X, 3 (August) 1992.
Petschenik, N.H. "Practical Priorities in System Testing." IEEE Software 2, 5 (Sept. 1985), 18-23.


Anderson, R. E. et. al. Inequity in computing. in Huff, C., and Fineholt, T. Social Issues in Computing: Putting computers in Their Place. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
Frenkel, K. A. Women and computing. Comm. of the ACM 33,11 (Nov., 1990), 34-46.
Greenbaum, J. The head and the heart: Using gender analysis to study the social construction of computer systems. Computers and Society,20,2 (June, 1990), 9-17.
Martin, C. D. and Murche-Beyma, E., Eds In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education, Internatinal Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, OR, 1992.
Pearl, A., Pollack, M. E., Riskin, E., Thomas, B., Wolf, E. and Wu, A. Becoming a computer scientist: A report by the ACM Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Science. Comm. of the ACM 33,11 (Nov., 1990), 46-57.
Perrolle, J. Conversations and Trust in Computer Interfaces. In Computers and Controversy, Dunlop and Kling, Eds., 1991.


Anderson, R. M. et. al. Divided Loyalties: Whistle-Blowing at BART. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1980.
Borning, A. Computer system reliability and nuclear war, Comm of ACM 30,2 (1987) 112-131.
Daniels, B. K. ed., Safety, Security & Reliability Related Computers for the l990's, Pergamon Press, Inc., l990.
Joyce, E.J. "Software Bugs: A Matter of Life and Liability." Datamation 33, 10 (May 15, 1987) 88-92.
Leveson, N.G. Software Safety. Curriculum Module SEI-CM-6-1.1, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1987.
Nycum, S. Liability for malfunction of a computer program. Rutgers Journal of Computers, Technology, and the Law. 7, 1-22, 1979.
Parnas, D. L. SDI: A Violation of Professional Responsibility. Abacus 4,2 (Winter, 1987) 46-52.


Clark, D. Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 1990.
Pressman, R. S. & Herron, R. Software Shock: The Danger and the Opportunity. Dorsett House, 1991.
U.S. Congress. House. Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversightof the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Bugs in the Program: Problems in Federal Government Computer Software Development and Regulation. 101st Cong., 1st sess.,Serial G, (Sept 1989).


Bayles, M. D. Professional Ethics. Wadsworth, Belmont, California, 1981.
DeGeorge, R. T. Business Ethics. Macmillan, New York, 1982.
Johnson, D. G. Ethical issues in Engineering, Prentice-Hall, 1991.
Martin, M. W. and Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1989.
Stevenson, J. T. Engineering Ethics: Practices and Principles. Canadian Scholars Press, Toronto, 1987.


Denning, P. J., Ed. Computers under Attack: Intruders, Worms and Viruses, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., l990.
Hoffman, L. J. ed., Rogue Programs: Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses, Van Nostrand Reinhold, l990.
Landreth, B. Out of the Inner Circle: The True Story of a Computer Intruder Capable of Cracking the Nation's Most Secure Computer Systems, Microsoft Press, l989.

Levin, R. Computer Virus Handbook, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, l990 Levy, S. Hackers: Heroes of the computer revolution, Doubleday Press, l984. Spafford, G. "Are computer hacker break-ins ethical?" Journal of Systems Software 17, (January, 1992).
Spafford, G. Computer Viruses: Dealing with Electronic Vandalism and Programmed Threats, ADAPSO, l989.
Stoll, C. The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage, Doubleday, l989.


ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). ACM proposed code of ethics and professional conduct. Communications of the ACM. 35(5):94-99, 1992.
ACM/SIGCAS (ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society) Proceedings of the Conference on Computers and the Quality of Life CQL '90, New York: ACM Press, 1990.
Brown, G. The Information Game: Ethical Issues in a Microchip World, Humanities Press Intl., l989.
Bynum, T. W., Maner, W., and Fodor, J. eds., Teaching Computer Ethics, Research Center on Computing and Society, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, 1992.
Bynum, T. W. ed., Computers & Ethics, Volume 16, No. 4, October l985, Basil Blackwell.
Collins, W. R. & Miller, K. W. "Paramedic Ethics for Computer Professionals" Journal of Systems and Software, 17 (January 1992), 23-38.
Dunlop, C. and Kling, R., Eds. Computerization & Controversy: Value Conflicts & Social Choices, Academic Press, l991.
Erdmann, M. D. Willimas, M. B. and Gutierrez, C. Computers, Ethics and Society, Oxford University Press, l990.
Flores, A. and Johnson, D. "Collective Responsibility and Professional Roles," Ethics, vol 93 (April 1983).
Forester, T. and Morrison, P. Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing, The MIT Press, l990.
Frankel, Mark S. 1989. Professional Codes: Why, How, and with What Impact? Journal of Business Ethics 8(2 & 3): 109-116. Gert, B. Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules. NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Gotterbarn, D. "Editor's Corner" Journal of Systems Software 17, (January, 1992), 5-6.
Gould, C., Ed The Information Web: Ethical and Social Implications of Computer Networking, Westview Press, l989.
IEEE Computer Society Press. Computing Curricula 1991, Report of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Curriculum Task Force. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, l991.
Johnson, D. G. and Snapper, J. W. Eds. Ethical Issues in the Use of Computers, Wadsworth, Belmont CA. 1985.
Johnson, D. G. Computer Ethics, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, N.J.1985. Johnson, D. G. Computer Ethics, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, N.J.1993.
Johnson, D. W. Computer Ethics: A Guide for the New Age, Brethren Press, l984.
Lipner, S. E. and Stephen Kalman, Computer Law: Cases and Materials, C.E. Merrill Publishing Co., l989.
Lyon, D. The Information Society: Issues and Illusions, Polity Press, New York, l988.
Martin, C. Dianne & Martin, David H. "Comparison of ethics codes of computer professionals," Social Science Computer Review 9, 1 (1990) 96-108. Parker, D. B. Ethical Conflicts in Computer Science and Technology, AFIPS Press, Arlington, VA 1979.
Parker, D. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual, 2nd ed., National Institute of Justice, August l989.
Parker, Donn. Swope, Susan, Baker, Bruce. Ethical Conflicts in Information and Computer Science, Technology and Business. Wellesley, MA: QED Information Sciences, 1990.
Perrolle, J. A. Computers and Social Change: Information, Property, and Power, Wadsworth Publishing Company, l987.
Robinett, J. ed., Computers & Ethics: A Sourcebook for Discussions, Polytechnic Press, l989.
Rosenberg, Richard S. "Ethics and professionalism" in The Social Impact of Computers. Boston, MA: Academic Press, 1991.
Russell, S. & Wefald, E. Do the Right Thing: Studies in limited rationality, The MIT Press, l991.
Sackman, Hal. A prototype IFIP code of ethics based on participative international consensus. pp. 698-703 in Charles Dunlop and Rob Kling (eds) Computerization and Controversy. Boston, MA: Academic Press, Inc., 1991.
Unger, S. H. Controlling Technology: Ethics and the Responsible Engineer. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1982. Weiss, E. A. Self-Assessment Procedure XXII. Comm. of the ACM 33,11 (Nov., 1990), 110-134.
Wessells, M. G. Computers, Self & Society, Prentice Hall, l989.

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