The following lessons introduce the topic of machine architecture by explaining data storage in computers, gates and circuits, and the central processing unit. Each lesson includes a set of review questions which test the important concepts from the lesson and provide practice problems. After reading each lesson, you should work the review questions before proceeding to the next lesson. Use the navigation bar at the top of this page to view the lessons and access the review questions. Each lesson page has a link on the navigation bar which will take you to the review questions for that lesson. To begin your study, click at the top of this page.


  1. Introduction to Machine Architecture
  2. Data Storage
  3. Gates
  4. Circuits
  5. The Central Processing Unit
  6. Summary

Learning objectives:

  • Explain the various ways data is represented in computer memory
  • Reproduce the truth tables for the AND, OR, and NOT gates
  • Trace the logic of circuits composed of a few simple gates
  • Describe the behavior of the following circuits: the decoder, the latch, and the adder
  • Write simple programs in machine code